SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT FAQ'S  

 1. What Is Integrated Solid Waste Management?

 

Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is a comprehensive waste prevention, recycling, composting, and disposal program. An effective ISWM system considers how to prevent, recycle, and manage solid waste in ways that most effectively protect human health and the environment. ISWM involves evaluating local needs and conditions, and then selecting and combining the most appropriate waste management activities for those conditions.

 2. What is recycling?

 

Recycling is a process that involves collecting, reprocessing, and/or recovering certain waste materials (e.g., glass, metal, plastics, paper) to make new materials or products. Some recycled organic materials are rich in nutrients and can be used to improve soils.

 3. What is Anaerobic digestion?

 

It is  a controlled process involving microbial decomposition of   organic matter in the absence of oxygen.

 4. What is Aerobic digestion?

It is a process involving microbial decomposition of organic matter   in presence of oxygen.

 5. What are Biodegradable substances?

The substance that can be degraded by microorganisms.

 6. What is composting?

It is a process of converting organic matter to manure by   microorganisms.

 7. What is vermin composting?

It is a process which involve earthworms for conversion of biodegradable   waste into compost.  

 8.      What is vermicomposting?

            Vermicomposting is the process of feeding of earthworms with organic waste and conversion of this waste material into vermicompost - organic manure by the earthworms. It is the accelerated and controlled decomposition of organic waste, using composting worms and mesophilic bacteria active in the temperature range of 20 degC to 45 degC.

 9.      What is vermiculture?
Vermiculture means feeding earthworms with organic waste or disposal of organic waste and breeding of earthworms. The primary objective of our system is disposal of organic waste / wet garbage and the secondary objective is generation of vermicompost organic manure.

 10.      What are the different kinds of vermiculture systems for disposal of organic waste?

            Vermiculture / vermicompost systems can be classified into windrow based, pit based and continuous flow in-vessel systems.

 11.   What is the waste processing period of Vermigold Tat-G organic digester?

            The Vermigold Tat-G Organic Digester has a very fast waste processing period of 7-14 days.

 12.      What is organic waste or biodegradable waste/wet garbage?

           Organic waste or biodegradable waste / wet garbage means waste of plant and animal origin. It includes kitchen waste including: tea leaves, egg shells, fruit and vegetable peels, cooked food scraps, meat and bones, garden waste including leaves and grass, carton waste, cardboard waste and paper waste. These types of wastes are 100% recyclable and comprise around 67% of the solid waste in a residential complex or hotel.

 13.      Can installation of this system enable us to comply with the various environmental regulations?

           Installation of the Vermigold on-site waste management system enables you to comply with the Govt. of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF), EIA environmental clearance for new large construction projects and any other local municipal regulation for disposal of solid waste in an environmentally responsible manner.

 14.      What kind of earthworms are used in the digester? Can these earthworms process both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food waste?
            The earthworms used in the Digester are surface burrowing earthworms' also known as composting worms. These types of earthworms feed on rotting organic material. The composting worms used in the Digester are a blend of specially selected varieties of composting worms e.g. African Night crawlers (Eudrilus Eugeniae), Eisenia Foetida and Perionyx Excavatus- a blend of these composting worms is most ideal in Indian conditions. Through the vermiculture process all kinds of organic waste including vegetarian and non-vegetarian food is processed in the digester.

 15.      Is vermicomposting an Environmentally sound technology?

             It is an Environmentally Sound Technology (EST) according to the criteria defined by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). They define an EST as being less polluting, using resources in a sustainable manner, recycling more of their wastes and products and handling all residual wastes in a more environmentally acceptable way than the technologies for which they are substitutes. Vermicomposting has significant advantages over other waste disposal methods such as composting, landfill and incineration according to the criteria defined by the UNEP.

 16.  Why is vermigold waste-crusher required to assist the digester?
            The Vermigold Waste-Crusher is a specially designed shredder cum pulveriser to process the organic kitchen, garden, paper and cardboard waste before introducing the waste material (feedstock) in the Organic Digester. Generally the smaller the size of the feedstock, the easier it is for the composting worms to eat the waste. Therefore we use the Vermigold Waste-Crusher to reduce the size of the feedstock and avoid foul odour which could occur if the size of the feedstock is not reduced.

 17.  How much power does the vermigold  waste – crusher require?

        The Waste-Crusher runs on a 5/10 HP motor and requires a three phase power point.

 18.  Is the digester based vermiculture system successful under Indian condition?

    The Vermigold on-site waste management systems have been successfully running at various locations in India from March 2004.

 19.  What about pests?
 The Vermigold Tat-G Digester is not susceptible to invasion by cockroaches and rats, as its shape and internal environment are not conducive to habitation by pests. Rat / Insect Poisons can be placed safely inside the Vermigold Tat-G Digester with absolutely no threat to the compost worms should the need arise. 

 20. What is e-waste?

            E-waste is electronic waste - the result of discarded electronic equipment. It includes a broad and growing range of electronic devices from computers to hand-held cellular phones, stereos, consumer electronics, and monitors. Unfortunately, electronic waste is among the fastest growing segments of our nation's waste stream.

  21. Why is e-waste a problem?

            As technology rapidly evolves, people are constantly upgrading to new equipment, and retiring their old equipment. The typical electronic product may contain more than 1,000 different substances, some of which are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health. If old equipment is not properly recycled, these substances could seep into air, soil, and water. The characteristics, scale and complexity of the e-waste situation create a significant challenge.

 22. What hazardous materials are in electronic products?
Electronic components such as printed circuits, Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) and LCD screen assemblies often contain a variety of heavy metals and other substances known to pose hazards to human and environmental health when disposed of improperly. Cadmium, lead, mercury, antimony and arsenic are some of these substances.

 23 How these e-wastes are harmful to our environment?

Electronic components assemblies often contain a variety of heavy metals and other substances like Cadmium, lead, mercury, antimony, arsenic etc. If these materials are released into earth or water they can be dangerous to the environment and the living beings around, in a long term. 

 24. What recyclable materials are in electronics products?
Consumer electronics contain a variety of recyclable materials like metals, glass, and plastics. All of these materials can be recaptured and used to create new products, lessening the need to mine the earth for raw resources.

 25. What electronic equipment is recyclable?
Chances are that most electronic products that still work could find a home elsewhere – whether resold or donated. If the product no longer works, most of its materials can be recovered and recycled. The challenge is getting those products into the recycling system efficiently and cost effectively. For years the design of electronic products did not incorporate strategies for efficient disassembly and component/materials recycling. These inefficiencies create high costs for the recycling of older electronic equipment. New design strategies are incorporating techniques like “design for disassembly” (DfD), design for environment (DfE) and design for recycling (DfR) to create greater efficiencies in recovering the materials in electronic products. As products more fully embody design attributes that facilitate high performance during use and efficient material recovery at end of use, a greater percentage of the materials in electronics products will be recyclable.

 26. Why is lead used in electronics?

Lead is uniquely capable of meeting the stringent performance standards required by current technology. Tin-lead solder is primarily used to connect electronic components because of its flexibility and durability under normal and extreme conditions of use. CRTs contain leaded glass to protect users from exposure to harmful radiation that's normally generated by the picture tube.

 27. Why is mercury used in electronics?

Laptop computers, digital cameras, and flat-panel TVs include small mercury-containing lamps that provide energy-efficient illumination, for which there currently is no cost-effective alternative.  

 28.

          1. what is mean by bio-remidation ?

        2. what is bio leaching

What is mean by bio-remediation?

Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the natural environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. Bioremediation may be employed to attack specific soil contaminants, such as degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by bacteria. An example of a more general approach is the cleanup of iol spills by the addition of nitrate and/or sulfate fertilisers to facilitate the decomposition of crude oil by indigenous or exogenous bacteria.

 What is bio-leaching?

Bioleaching is the extraction of specific metals from their ores through the use of bacteria. Bioleaching is one of several applications within biohydrometallurgy and several methods are used to recover copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, antimony, nickel, molybdenum, gold, and cobalt.

 29.What is mean by bio medical waste?

Biomedical waste consists of solids, liquids, sharps, and laboratory waste that are potentially infectious or dangerous. It must be properly managed to protect the general public, specifically healthcare and sanitation workers who are regularly exposed to biomedical waste as an occupational hazard.

Biomedical waste differs from other types of hazardous waste, such as industrial waste, in that it comes from biological sources or is used in the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of diseases. Common producers of biomedical waste include hospitals, health clinics, nursing homes, medical research laboratories, offices of physicians, dentists, and veterinarians, home health care, and funeral homes.

30 .How many earth worm species use in vermin composting?

About two thousand five hundred species of earthworms have been identified in the world of which more than five hundred species of earthworms have been identified in India. Diversity of earthworm species varies with different types of soils and hence choosing a local or native species of earthworm for the local soil and for vermin composting is an important step. There is no need to import earthworms from elsewhere.

Types of Earthworms  

Earthworms are classified into there types based on their life cycle and also on the basis of depth of holes that they make in the soil in which they live.

First Type  

These types of earthworms dwell in the upper surface of the soil in within one feet, and exhibit fast movement. These are called as Epigeic. These types of earthworms can convert the leaf residues into manure. These are suitable for Vermicomposting. 

 Examples

  1. Eudrilus Eugenia

. Eisenia foetida  

    Local

  1. Perionyx excavatus


2. Drawida willsi  

Second Type

This type dwells in the middle portion of soil layer in one foot to two feet. These are called as Anacic. This type can absorb the inner contents of the soil and also is able to change the soil structure. Since they exhibit an upward &downward type of movement, soil aeration gets improved. 

Example
Local  :  Lampito mauriti

      Third type  

They dwell in the soil at a depth of 6ft. they push their wastes to the upper surface of the soil. Because of their upward & downward type of movement, they make tunnels beneath the soil. This facilitates soil aeration and drainage of water. Also facilitates the availability of sunlight to the roots of crops. These are called as Endogeic.

31. What is mean by bio-remediation?  

Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the natural environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. Bioremediation may be employed to attack specific soil contaminants, such as degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by bacteria. An example of a more general approach is the cleanup of oil spills by the addition of nitrate and/or sulfate fertilisers to facilitate the decomposition of crude oil by indigenous or exogenous bacteria.

32. What is bio-leaching?

Bioleaching is the extraction of specific metals from their ores through the use of bacteria. Bioleaching is one of several applications within biohydrometallurgy and several methods are used to recover copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, antimony, nickel, molybdenum, gold, and cobalt.

33.All municipal wastes are used for composting?

Composting is the purposeful biodegradation of organic matter, such as yard and food waste. The decomposition is performed by micro-organisms, mostly bacteria, but also yeasts and fungi.

Only the biodegradable waste is used for composting. Because the biodegradable material is capable of being completely broken down under the action of microorganisms into carbon dioxide, water and biomass.

34. what are all the recent techniques available in solid waste management?

            Some of the recent techniques in waste management include

1.       Collection of methane gas from landfill. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.

2.       Biological processing which include composting and vermi composting.

3.       Waste to energy - The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Recycling through thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating, to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. The process typically occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other products. The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. Gasification and advanced Plasma arc gasification are used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam.

 35.

i what is solid waste conversion?

ii what is vermicomposting?

iii what are the different species of earth worms used for  composting?

iv.what are the different species of earth worms used for  vermiwash?

v.what are the major waste accumulated in municipal garbage?

What is solid waste conversion ?

Conversion technologies refer to a wide array of state of the art technologies capable of converting unrecyclable solid waste into useful products, such as green fuels and renewable energy, in an environmentally beneficial way. Utilizing conversion technologies to recover solid waste from disposal can:

·        reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other criteria pollutants;

·        reduce dependence on landfilling and imported fossil fuels;

·        enhance recycling efforts

What is vermicomposting?

Vermicompost  is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by some species of earthworm. Containing water-soluble nutrients, and bacteria, vermicompost is an excellent, nutrient-rich organic fertilizer and soil conditioner. The process of producing vermicompost is called vermicomposting.

What are the different species of earth worms used for composting?

What are the different species of earth worms used for composting?  

About two thousand five hundred species of earthworms have been identified in the world of which more than five hundred species of earthworms have been identified in India. Diversity of earthworm species varies with different types of soils and hence choosing a local or native species of earthworm for the local soil and for vermin composting is an important step. There is no need to import earthworms from elsewhere.  

Types of Earthworms

Earthworms are classified into there types based on their life cycle and also on the basis of depth of holes that they make in the soil in which they live.

     First Type  

These types of earthworms dwell in the upper surface of the soil in within one feet, and exhibit fast movement. These are called as Epigeic. These types of earthworms can convert the leaf residues into manure. These are suitable for Vermicomposting.  

 Examples

  1. Eudrilus Eugenia


2. Eisenia foetida
 

 Local

  1. Perionyx excavatus


2. Drawida willsi  

Second Type

This type dwells in the middle portion of soil layer in one foot to two feet. These are called as Anacic. This type can absorb the inner contents of the soil and also is able to change the soil structure. Since they exhibit an upward &downward type of movement, soil aeration gets improved. 

Example
Local  :  Lampito mauriti

       Third type  

They dwell in the soil at a depth of 6ft. they push their wastes to the upper surface of the soil. Because of their upward & downward type of movement, they make tunnels beneath the soil. This facilitates soil aeration and drainage of water. Also facilitates the availability of sunlight to the roots of crops. These are called as Endogeic.  

What are the different species of earth worms used for  vermiwash?  

 Vermiwash is a liquid plant growth regulator, which contains high amount of enzymes, vitamins and hormones like auxins, gibberellins etc along with macro and micronutrients used as foliar spray. The earthworm species most often used are Branding Worms (Eisenia Foetida) or Redworms (Lumbricus rubellus). These species are only rarely found in soil and are adapted to the special conditions.  

What are the major waste accumulated in municipal garbage?

The Compostable matter is the major component of MSW composition in India. This ranges from 24% to 58%, with an average of 35% by weight for Class-l cities. The content of paper and paper board varies from 3% to 105 by weigh and average before disposal.

36

i. What is mean by bio-augmentation?

Bioaugmentation is the introduction of a group of natural microbial strains or a genetically engineered variant to treat contaminated soil or water. Usually the steps involve studying the indigenous varieties present in the location to determine if biostimulation is possible. If the indigenous variety do not have the metabolic capability to perform the remediation process, exogenous varieties with such sophisticated pathways are introduced.Bioaugmentation is commonly used in municipal wastewater treatment to restart activated sludge bioreactors

ii. what is bio-remediation?

Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the natural environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. Bioremediation may be employed to attack specific soil contaminants, such as degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by bacteria. An example of a more general approach is the cleanup of oil spills by the addition of nitrate and/or sulfate fertilisers to facilitate the decomposition of crude oil by indigenous or exogenous bacteria.

iii what is phyto remediation?

Phytoremediation describes the treatment of environmental problems (bioremediation) through the use of plants. The word's etymology comes from the Greek φυτο (phyto) = plant, and Latin « remedium » = restoring balance, or remediating. Phytoremediation consists in depolluting contaminated soils, water or air with plants able to contain, degrade or eliminate metals, pesticides, solvents, explosives, crude oil and its derivatives, and various other contaminants, from the media that contain them.

iv. who is the author of silent spring?

Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1962. The book is widely credited with helping launch the environmental movement.When Silent Spring was published, Rachel Carson was already a well-known writer on natural history, but had not previously been a social critic. The book was widely read (especially after its selection by the Book-of-the-Month Club and an endorsement by Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas), spending several weeks on the New York Times best-seller list, and inspired widespread public concerns with pesticides and pollution of the environment. Silent Spring facilitated the ban of the pesticide DDT in 1972 in the United States.

The book documented detrimental effects of pesticides on the environment, particularly on birds. Carson said that DDT had been found to cause thinner egg shells and result in reproductive problems and death. She also accused the chemical industry of spreading disinformation, and public officials of accepting industry claims uncritically.

Silent Spring has made many lists of the best nonfiction books of the twentieth century. Most recently, Silent Spring was named one of the 25 greatest science books of all time by the editors of Discover Magazine.

v mention the organisms involved in bio-mining?

Biomining is a new approach to the extraction of desired minerals from ores being explored by the mining industry in the past few years. Microorganisms are used to leach out the minerals, rather than the traditional methods of extreme heat or toxic chemicals, which have a deleterious effect on the environment.

The bacteria are involved in biomining and are among the most remarkable life forms known. They are described as chemolithotrophic, which basically means rock eating, that is they obtain their energy from the oxidation of inorganic substances. Many of them are also autotrophic that is they utilize carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as the carbon source. These microorganisms live in very inhospitable environments, which other microbes would find it impossible to survive or tolerate; for example the sulphuric acid and soluble metals concentrations are often very high. Some thermophilic microorganisms require temperatures above 50 degree Celsius (122 degree Fahrenheit), and a few strains have been found at temperatures close to that of the boiling point of water. 

vi mention the uses of myco-remediation?

Mycoremediation has potential for future expansion. Mushrooms could be used to break down pesticides released from farms before they reach rivers and the food chain. Fungi could take up heavy metals from the ocean, restoring the land more rapidly to pave way for further development.

Mushrooms can also absorb heavy metals such as mercury, lead and arsenic. A species called oyster mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus, have a particularly high tolerance for areas heavily contaminated with cadmium and mercury. This means oyster mushrooms can grow in high-mercury areas and still decompose other pollutants.

Mushrooms that ingest heavy metals are no longer safe to eat, because the toxins remain concentrated in the mushroom instead of being broken down. For this reason, heavy-metal laden mushrooms must be removed after absorption to prevent the metals from reentering the area when the mushrooms die and decompose.

Oyster mushrooms gained national attention after the Nov. 7, 2007 Cosco Busan oil spill, when nearly 60,000 gallons of diesel fuel were dumped into San Francisco Bay. To test the potential of mycoremediation, workers mopped up oily beaches with mats of human hair, which is extremely absorbent. Oyster mushroom spores were introduced and began growing on the mats, decomposing the oil. The result: water, carbon dioxide, compost material suitable for highway landscaping and restored beaches.

Once the oyster mushrooms run out of food, they will die off and decompose naturally, posing no threat to the environment, according to the Environmental Protection Agency.

 37.what are all raw material used for solid waste compost ?

Organic material like crop residues, green manure, common compost, mushroom compost, animal manure (cattle, swine, and poultry), municipal refuse, residues after oil extraction, and residues from processing animal products. The nutrient contents of these materials differ greatly.

 38. i .How many days take for vermicomposting?          

             It takes 60-90 days for a vermin compost to harvest.  

         ii.  finally vermicompost colour?          

The compost is ready when the material is moderately loose and crumbly and the colour of the compost is dark brown. It will be black, granular, lightweight and humus-rich.   

       iii. name the diffrent spp of earthwarm?             

               Types of Earthworms  

Earthworms are classified into there types based on their life cycle and also on the basis of depth of holes that they make in the soil in which they live.

First Type

 

These types of earthworms dwell in the upper surface of the soil in within one feet, and exhibit fast movement. These are called as Epigeic. These types of earthworms can convert the leaf residues into manure. These are suitable for Vermicomposting.

  Examples

  1. Eudrilus Eugenia


2. Eisenia foetida
 

 Local

  1. Perionyx excavatus


2. Drawida willsi  

Second Type

This type dwells in the middle portion of soil layer in one foot to two feet. These are called as Anacic. This type can absorb the inner contents of the soil and also is able to change the soil structure. Since they exhibit an upward &downward type of movement, soil aeration gets improved.  

Example
Local  :  Lampito mauriti

Third type  

They dwell in the soil at a depth of 6ft. they push their wastes to the upper surface of the soil. Because of their upward & downward type of movement, they make tunnels beneath the soil. This facilitates soil aeration and drainage of water. Also facilitates the availability of sunlight to the roots of crops. These are called as Endogeic.

 39.  I AM INTERSTED IN TAKING MUNICIPAL WASTES FOR COMPOSTING  GIVE YOUR   VIEWS         

Composting of municipal solid waste is an emerging area in India with great prospects as well as constraints. These developments can be examined from the waste management, agricultural and climate change scenario. The technology is simple and affordable, the product is beneficial for soil and significant saving of land (required for land-filling) is achieved. However, public-private partnership efforts are constrained due to quality requirements, marketing and pricing issues. This paper assesses the current scenario in the light of past developments, its role and potential in the Indian context and ways to make it sustainable on a long-term basis.

The recent upsurge of interest in composting the organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) builds on largely successful efforts with composting yard trimmings, agricultural wastes, and sewage sludges. While experience with these other materials is helpful in considering an MSW composting program, there are a number of challenges unique to MSW which need to be addressed. MSW contains materials which vary widely in size, moisture, and nutrient content, and the organic fractions can be mixed with varying degrees of non-compostable wastes and possibly hazardous constituents. Manufacturing a marketable compost product from this material requires a range of physical processing technologies in addition to the biological process management common to other types of composting.

Four tasks are central to the design of a modern MSW composting system: collection, contaminant separation, sizing and mixing, and biological decomposition.

The first of the preprocessing tasks, collection, largely determines the processing requirements of the remaining tasks because they must be tailored to the characteristics of the incoming waste. Separation processes at the composting facility generate recyclable and reject streams, usually at several places in the process. Size reduction increases the surface area of the organic wastes, enhancing opportunities for biological activity, while mixing ensures that nutrients, moisture and oxygen are adequate throughout the material. Options for accomplishing these first three tasks are described below.

40. is their any possibilities to create resistance(pest/disease) in plants ?   

Vermicompost can be used to make compost tea (worm tea), by mixing some vermicompost in water and steeping for a number of hours or days. Its microbial activity is greater if it is aerated during this period. The resulting liquid is used as a fertilizer or sprayed on the plants. 

The dark brown waste liquid, or leachate, that drains into the bottom of some vermicomposting systems as water-rich foods break down, is best applied back to the bin when added moisture is needed due to the possibility of phytotoxins and organic acids toxic to plants.

41.what few microorganisms are which assists in composting of wastes? 

Organisms in the compost include earthworms, nematodes, protozoa, fungi and bacteria.

42.what is the remedy for non degradable waste?    

The non-degradable waste like  Tin, aluminium, other metal items, Plastic bags and Glass bottles can either be recycled or can be reused into different forms. From the above listed items aluminium, glass bottles metals can be recycled or can be reused as such after thorough cleaning. But the disposal of plastics seems to be the major problem all over the world because the carry bags, cups, bottles, plates etc cannot be recycled if it is less than 20 microns . Many industries produce environmental friendly products but though they sound so or not really friendly to the environment. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has ranked 47 chemical plants which emit carcinogens in the environment and in that highest number (35) of plants are plastic producing industries.

The non-biodegradable material plastics can be used to produce fuel and can be used to make bitumen roads.

43.i. temperature forrm in composting process ?      

The ideal temperature range for active composting is 105- 145º F. High temperatures are essential for destruction of pathogenic organisms and undesirable weed seeds. Also, decomposition is more rapid in the thermophilic temperature range. Since few thermophilic organisms actively carry on decomposition above 160° F, it is undesirable to have temperatures above this for extended periods.

 ii nutrient value of vermicompost?

Compost provides the basic nutrients of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) as well as dozens of micro- and macro nutrients that are vital for healthy plants. The nutrient value of compost includes:

Organic matter 9.3%

N – 8.3%

P – 4.5%

K- 1.0 % (water soluble)

Ca – 0.4 %

Mg – 0.1 %


 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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