Centre on environment related activities with special reference to Solid Waste Management     

                                              INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE

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  Solid wastes generated from industries include inorganic and organic materials. Some of the industrial waste can be recycled to produce energy. Other type of wastes is either land filled or incinerated.  

                INDUSTRIAL WASTE

  •  Biodegradable -  waste from food processing  industry,  slaughterhouses, dairy, chemicals, pickles, and textile mills.  

  • Non-biodegradable waste from collieries, refineries, and steel plants, lead and zinc plant, thermal power plant and paper industry.
  •  Hazardous    - waste from refineries, metallurgical and   electroplating industries, pickling, pharmaceutical, pesticide and dye.

 In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries. Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal. Some of the electronic waste (e-waste) generated by electronic equipments found in house, office etc. contain hazardous waste . 

  Part of the hazardous waste includes mining wastes in which residues are obtained from extraction from earth. Some of scrap metals like bits and pieces of metal parts (e.g., bars, turnings, rods, sheets, wire) or metal pieces that may be combined together with bolts or soldering (e.g., radiators, scrap automobiles, railroad box cars).

   

    India generates around 7 million tonnes of hazardous wastes every year, most of which is concentrated in four states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu.

 

             Electronic - Waste (E-Waste)

 

 Electronic-Waste- E-waste refers to obsolete and unserviceable electronic gadgets. They may be PCs, TVs, mobile phones etc.

The most recent industrial waste includes computers and other electronic equipments, which find their way directly into unauthorized scrap dealers. Some of organizations like EXNORA, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition on the Computer Take Back Campaign made several steps to eliminate the e-waste by making the manufacturers to clean out the waste.

  Improper disposal or recycling of e-waste releases toxic substance like lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, nickel, zinc, and brominated flame retardants. Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) from monitors and television contain average of four pounds of lead.

     A study by Kittitas County with special reference to e-waste shows that 315 million computers would have become obsolete by the year 2005. It is estimated that three hundred and fifteen million computers would have become obsolete in 2005.

                          Amount of waste generated from 315 million computers:

  •                         4 billion pounds of plastic
  •                        1.2 million pounds of chromium
  •                        1 billion pounds of lead
  •                        1.9 million pounds of cadmium
  •                        400,000 pounds of mercury

                     Composition of a desktop personal computer

                 (Based on a typical desktop computer, weighing ~27 Kg)  

   Raw material Content (% of total weight) Weight of material in computer (kg) Recycling Efficiency
(current recyclability)
     Use/Location

Plastics

22.9907

6.21

  20%

Includes organics, oxides other than silica

Lead

6.2988

1.71

  5%

Metal joining, radiation shield/CRT, PWB

Aluminum

14.1723

3.83

80%

Structural, conductivity/housing, CRT, PWB, connectors

    Germanium        0.0016

<0.045

         0%

Semiconductor/PWB

 

     Iron

      20.4712

          5.535

80%

Structural, magnetivity/(steel) housing, CRT, PWB

    Tin

1.0078

0.27

70%

Metal joining/PWB, CRT

Copper

6.9287

2.12

90%

Conductivity/CRT, PWB, connectors

Barium

0.0315

0.05

0%

In vacuum tube/CRT

Nickel

0.8503

0.23

80%

Structural, magnetivity/(steel) housing, CRT, PWB

Zinc

2.2046

0.60

60%

Battery, phosphor emitter/PWB, CRT

Tantalum

0.0157

<0.045

0%

Capacitors/PWB, power supply

Indium

0.0016

<0.045

60%

Transistor, rectifiers/PWB

Vanadium

0.0002

<0.045

0%

Red phosphor emitter/CRT

Terbium

0

0

0%

Green phosphor activator, dopant/CRT, PWB

Beryllium

0.0157

<0.045

0%

Thermal conductivity/PWB, connectors

Gold 

0.0016

<0.045

99%

Connectivity, conductivity/PWB, connectors

Europium

0.0002

<0.045

0%

Phosphor activator/PWB

Titanium

0.0157

< 0.045

0%

Pigment, alloying agent/(aluminum) housing

Ruthenium

0.0016

< 0.045

80%

Resistive circuit/PWB

Cobalt

0.0157

< 0.045

85%

Structural, magnetivity/(steel) housing, CRT, PWB

Palladium

0.0003

<0.045

95%

Connectivity, conductivity/PWB, connectors

Manganese

0.0315

<0.045

0%

Structural, magnetivity/(steel) housing, CRT, PWB

Silver

0.0189

< 0.045

98%

Conductivity/PWB, connectors

Antinomy

0.0094

< 0.045

0%

Diodes/housing, PWB, CRT

Bismuth

0.0063

< 0.045

0%

Wetting agent in thick film/PWB

Chromium

0.0063

< 0.045

0%

Decorative, hardener/(steel) housing

Cadmium

0.0094

<0.045

0%

Battery, glu-green phosphor emitter/housing, PWB, CRT

Selenium

0.0016

0.000432

70%

Rectifiers/PWB

Niobium

0.0002

< 0.045

0%

Welding allow/housing

Yttrium

0.0002

< 0.045

0%

Red phosphor emitter/CRT

Rhodium

0

 

50%

Thick film conductor/PWB

Platinum

0

 

95%

Thick film conductor/PWB

Mercury

0.0022

< 0.045

0%

Batteries, switches/housing, PWB

Arsenic

0.0013

< 0.045

0%

Doping agents in transistors/PWB

Silica

24.8803

6.75

0%

Glass, solid state devices/CRT, PWB

 

   Note: plastics contain polybrominated flame retardants, and hundreds of additives and stabilizers  not   listed separately .

 

     Source: http://www.svtc.org

 

   

                  E-WASTE HEALTH EFFECTS  

The e-waste recycling system has direct and indirect impacts on labor, health and the environment. E-waste recyclers have high levels of dangerous chemicals in their blood (Source:http://www.ewaste.ch/). Improper disposal or recycling of e-waste releases toxic substance like lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury, beryllium, nickel, zinc, and brominates flame-retardants. Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) from monitors and television contain average of four pounds of lead.

   Semiconductors, printed circuit boards, disk drives and monitors uses particularly hazardous chemicals, and workers involved were affected by cancer.

Although the lead is probably not  environmental    problems while the monitor or television is intact,  the lead might leach out under conditions typical of  municipal landfills. It causes several health problems  while inhaling. Small children, the elderly, or people  with preexisting respiratory conditions can be  especially vulnerable to some of these pollutants.

  Amount of waste generated from 315 million   computers:

  •   4 billion pounds of plastic

  •   1.2 million pounds of    chromium      1 billion pounds of lead

  •    1.9 million pounds of cadmium         400,000 pounds of mercury

         source: http://www.ewaste.ch/

 

    

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